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1484CE

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§World Weather

The World saw significantly lower temperatures and precipitation this year.

§Africa

§Congo

July 6 - Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão finds the mouth of Congo River

§Atlantic Ocean

§Canary Islands

The first sugar mill becomes operational in the Gran Canaria

§Europe

§Austria

First cuirassier units (kyrissers) formed in Austria

§England

January - Richard III's title to the throne was confirmed by Parliament by the document Titulus Regius.

January - Richard introduced bail protect suspected felons from imprisonment before trial and to protect their property from seizure during that time.

March 2 - The College of Arms or Herald's College is formed by Richard III as a royal corporation consisting of professional officers of arms, with jurisdiction over England, Wales, Northern Ireland and some Commonwealth realms. The heralds are appointed by the British Sovereign and are delegated authority to act on her behalf in all matters of heraldry, the granting of new coats of arms, genealogical research and the recording of pedigrees. The College is also the official body responsible for matters relating to the flying of flags on land, and it maintains the official registers of flags and other national symbols. Though a part of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom the College is self-financed, unsupported by any public funds.

March 26 - William Caxton, the first printer of books in English, printed his translation of Aesop's Fables.

April - Edward of Middleham, the 11 year old son of Richard III died not long after being created Prince of Wales.

Richard III's daughter Katherine, married William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke.

§France

In mid-1484, Francis, Duke of Brittany was incapacitated by illness and while recuperating, his treasurer, Pierre Landais, took over the reins of government. Landais reached an agreement with Richard to send back Henry and his uncle in exchange for military and financial aid. John Morton, a bishop of Flanders, learned of the scheme and warned the Tudors, who fled to France. The French court allowed them to stay; the Tudors were useful pawns to ensure that Richard's England did not interfere with French plans to annex Brittany.

§Germany

December 5 - Pope Innocent VIII gives the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and witches in Germany with the lead of Dominican Inquisitor Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger. The Papal Bull Summis desiderantes affectibus recognizes the existence of witches and encourages German ecclesiastical authorities to cooperate with the inquisitors. Despite this threat, the bull failed to ensure that Kramer got the support he had hoped for, causing him to retire and compiling his views on witchcraft in his book Malleus Maleficarum.

§Spain

Ferdinand in December 1484 and again in 1509 decreed death and confiscation for anyone trying to appeal to the Vatican against the Inquisition without royal permission. With this, the Inquisition became the only institution that held authority across all the realms of the Spanish monarchy, and, in all of them, a useful mechanism at the service of the crown.

§Vatican

August 29 - Pope Innocent VIII succeeds Pope Sixtus IV as the 213th pope. Innocent VIII (1484-1492): Won election by bribery, and created a plethora of unnecessary new posts in the Curia, auctioning them to the highest bidder to raise money.

The conclave was riven with faction, while gangs rioted in the streets. Cardinal Giuliano did not have sufficient votes at the conclave to be elected, so he turned his energies towards the election of Cybo, whom he was confident that he could control.

Shortly after his coronation Innocent VIII addressed a fruitless summons to Christendom to unite in a crusade against the infidels.

Pope Innocent VIII attempted to allow appeals to Rome against the Spanish Inquisition

December 5 - Pope Innocent VIII gives the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and witches in Germany with the lead of Dominican Inquisitor Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger. The Pope issued the Papal Bull Summis desiderantes affectibus-Desiring with supreme ardor. The bull recognizes the existence of witches.

§Scotland

July 22 - Battle of Lochmaben Fair - A 500-man raiding party led by Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany and James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas defeated by Scots forces loyal to Albany's brother James III of Scotland; Douglas captured.

§Spain

September 15 - Peter Arbues, is assassinated while praying in the cathedral at Saragossa, Spain and he died on September 17. He had been appointed Inquisitor of Aragon by the Inquisitor General, Tomás de Torquemada, in the campaign against heresy and crypto-Judaism.

§Southeast Asia

§Myanmar

February 5 - The Great Bell of Dhammazedi a bronze bell, believed to be the largest bell ever cast was cast. It was cast by order of King Dhammazedi of Hanthawaddy Pegu, and was given as a present to the Shwedagon Pagoda of Dagon.

§Sources

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