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1478CE

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§Africa

§Ethiopia

November - Eskender succeeds his father Baeda Maryam as Emperor of Ethiopia at the age of six.

§Europe

§Czech Republic

Vladislav II of Bohemia makes peace with Hungary

§England

February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London.

§Italy

April 26 - The Pazzi attack Lorenzo de' Medici and kill his brother Giuliano during High Mass in the Florence Cathedral. As the opening stroke of the Pazzi Conspiracy, he was assassinated on Sunday, in the Duomo of Florence, Santa Maria del Fiore, by Francesco de' Pazzi and Bernardo Baroncelli. He was killed by a sword wound to the head and was stabbed 19 times

Lorenzo de' Medici becomes sole ruler of Florence

§Papal States

July - Pope Sixtus IV is said to have expressed his approval of "ritual murder" of the Jews in "the Papal Bull XII Kal, 1478, July."

§Spain

Beginning of the Spanish Inquisition. The Spanish Inquisition was an ecclesiastical tribunal started in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms, and to replace the medieval inquisition which was under papal control. The new body was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy.

Alonso de Hojeda, a Dominican from Seville, convinced Queen Isabel of the existence of Crypto-Judaism among Andalusian conversos during her stay in Seville between 1477 and 1478.[7] A report, produced at the request of the monarchs by Pedro González de Mendoza, Archbishop of Seville, and by the Segovian Dominican Tomás de Torquemada, corroborated this assertion. The monarchs decided to introduce the Inquisition to Castile to uncover and do away with false converts, and requested the Pope's assent. At first the request was turned down for a number of reasons. One reason was that they had requested the Spanish Inquisition to be under the control of the monarchs of Spain. This in turn would lessen papal authority over the clergy involved and make methods difficult to keep in line with official papal rules of inquisition, and instead easily become a mere political and semi-military tool of Spain. Ferdinand pressured Sixtus IV by threatening to withdraw military support at a time when the Turks were threating Catholic Europe. On November 1, 1478, Pope Sixtus IV published the bill Exigit Sinceras Devotionis Affectus, through which the Inquisition was established in the Kingdom of Castile. The bill also gave the monarchs exclusive authority to name the inquisitors.

§Switzerland

December 28 - Battle of Giornico - Swiss troops defeat the Milanese.

§India

Hiriya Chamarajarasa Wodiyar II began his rule as the Indian King of Mysore.

According to Hindu mythology, the area around Mysore city was once the domain of the demon king Mahishasura, who grew almost invincible and wreaked havoc on the world. The Goddess Chamundeshwari, vanquished the demon after an intense ten day struggle. The Goddess is therefore also known by the name Mahishasura Mardhini (Slayer of Mahisha). The battle and the victory are commemorated by the annual nine-day Navaratri festival to this day. The name Mysore is the anglicised version of Mahishūru which is derived from Mahisha.

§Russia

January 14 - Novgorod surrenders to Ivan III, Grand Prince of Moscow.

§Sources

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