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The Chinese let Arughtai's Eastern Mongols battle with Toghon's Oirat tribes of the west. Beijing received horses annually from Arughtai; but he was defeated by the Oirats in 1431.

§Southeast Asia

§Khmer (modern Cambodia)

Chao Ponhea Yat became king of Khmer Empire at Angkor. That year he was forced to flee Angkor Thom when the Siamese captured it, resettling first in Tuol Basan City (now Srey Santhor), and after that became flooded, to Chaktomuk (now part of Phnom Penh). He ruled as King of Cambodia from 1432 CE until 1462 CE.

In Phnom Penh, the king ordered the land to be built up to protect it from flooding, and a palace to be built.

During his reign King Ponhea Yat also ordered the construction of six Buddhist monasteries around the city, and his remains are housed in a stupa behind the Wat Phnom.



January 9 - Pretrial investigations for Joan of Arc begin in Rouen, France under English occupation. The trial for heresy was politically motivated. The Duke of Bedford claimed the throne of France on behalf of his nephew Henry VI. Joan had been responsible for the rival coronation, hence condemning her was an attempt to undermine her king's legitimacy. Legal proceedings commenced at Rouen, the seat of the English occupation government.

The trial record demonstrates her remarkable intellect. The transcript's most famous exchange is an exercise in subtlety. "Asked if she knew she was in God's grace, she answered: 'If I am not, may God put me there; and if I am, may God so keep me.'" The question is a scholarly trap. Church doctrine held that no one could be certain of being in God's grace. If she had answered yes, then she would have convicted herself of heresy. If she had answered no, then she would have confessed her own guilt. Notary Boisguillaume later testified that at the moment the court heard this reply, "Those who were interrogating her were stupefied.

Foundation of University of Poitiers

February 13 - The officers appointed in the Joan of Arc case take the oath:

On the morning of Tuesday, February 13th of the same year there appeared before us in our dwelling the following lords and masters: Gilles, abbot of Fécamp, Jean Beaupère, Jacques de Touraine, Nicolas Midi, Pierre Maurice, Gerard Feuillet, doctors; Nicolas de Venderès and Jean de La Fontaine, licentiates in canon law; William Haiton, Nicolas Couppequesne, Thomas de Courcelles, bachelors of theology; and Nicolas Loiseleur, canon of the cathedral of Rouen. We summoned the officers already appointed and ordained by us in this suit, namely master Jean d'Estivet, the promoter; Guillaume Boisguillaume and Guillaume Manchon, notaries; master Jean Massieu, executor of our convocations and commands. We required them to take oath to fulfil their offices faithfully, and in obedience to our request they swore between our hands to fulfil and exercise them faithfully.

February 19 - It is decided that there is sufficient evidence against Joan of Arc to proceed and the court calls the Inquisitor, who was absent from the city. Instead they call his vicar:

The same Monday, at four in the afternoon, we were visited in our house by the venerable and discreet master Jean Le Maistre of the order of Preaching brothers, Vicar of the lord Inquisitor of the kingdom of France and appointed by him to the city and diocese of Rouen

February 20 - Le Maistre refuses to act. Letters immediately went out to the Grand Inquisitor.

February 21 - The first public session of the trial of Joan of Arc.

March 4 - End of the First Part of the Public Sessions. Sunday, March 4th

May 23 - Wednesday,Jeanne's faults are expounded to her by master Pierre Maurice. The trial is concluded

May 30 - Joan of Arc is handed over to the secular authorities. Joan's cell was a dark room in the castle at Rouen. She was kept in leg irons which were chained to a large piece of wood. She was under the careful guard of five English soldiers, three of whom slept within her cell. Though the imprisonment was clearly secular, the keys to her cell were held by three clergymen) Cardinal Henry Beaufort, Cauchon, and Inquisitor Jean Graverent) to maintain the legal illusion of it being an ecclesiastical custody. The tower Joan was held in allowed for others to easily hear what happened in her cell without being seen.

May 24 - Joan of Arc recants and signs a confession to keep from dying on the stake.

Jeanne's Abjuration
"All those who have erred and been at fault in the Christian faith and have by God's grace returned to the light of truth and unity of Our Holy Mother Church, should vigilantly prevent the Enemy of Hell from driving them back and causing their relapse into error and damnation. Therefore, I, Jeanne, commonly called The Maid, a miserable sinner recognizing
the snares of error in which I was held, and being by God's grace returned to Our Holy Mother Church, in order to show that my return is made not feignedly but with a good heart and will, I confess that I have most grievously sinned in falsely pretending to have had revelations and apparitions from God, His angels, St. Catherine and St. Margaret; in seducing others; in believing foolishly and lightly; in making superstitious divinations, in blaspheming God and His Saints; in breaking the divine law, Holy Scripture, and the canon laws; in wearing a dissolute, ill-shaped and immodest dress against the decency of nature, and hair cropped round like a man's, against all the modesty of womankind; also in bearing arms most presumptuously; in cruelly desiring the shedding of human blood; in declaring that I did all these things by the command of God, His angels and the said saints, and that to do so was good and not to err; in being seditious and idolatrous, adoring and calling up evil spirits. I confess also that I have been schismatic and in many ways have erred from the path: These crimes and errors, I, being by God's grace returned to the way of truth through the holy doctrine and good counsel of yourself and the doctors and masters whom you sent me, unfeignedly and with a good heart abjure and recant, renouncing and cutting myself off from them all. Upon all the aforesaid things I submit to the correction, disposition, amendment and entire decision of Our Holy Mother Church and of your good justice. And I vow, swear and promise to you, to my lord Saint Peter, Prince of the Apostles, to Our Holy Father the Pope of Rome, his vicar and his successors, to you, my lords, to the lord bishop of Beauvais and the religious brother Jean Le Maistre, vicar of the lord Inquisitor of the faith, my judges, that I will never through exhortation or other means return to the aforesaid errors, from which it has pleased God to deliver and remove me;
but will always dwell in the unity of Our Holy Mother Church and the obedience of our Holy Father the Pope of Rome. This I say, affirm and swear by God almighty and the holy Gospels. In sign whereof I have signed this schedule with my mark."
Signed "Jehanne +."

The afternoon of the same day, May 24th. Jeanne puts on woman's dress

At the trial in 1431 she was condemned and sentenced to die.

May 28 - Monday, Jeanne resumes man's dress

Eyewitnesses described the scene of the execution by burning on 30 May. Tied to a tall pillar at the Vieux-Marché in Rouen, she asked two of the clergy, Fr Martin Ladvenu and Fr Isambart de la Pierre, to hold a crucifix before her. A peasant also constructed a small cross which she put in the front of her dress. After she expired, the English raked back the coals to expose her charred body so that no one could claim she had escaped alive, then burned the body twice more to reduce it to ashes and prevent any collection of relics. They cast her remains into the Seine from the only bridge called Mathilda. The executioner, Geoffroy Therage, later stated that he "...greatly feared to be damned."

December - Charles VII succeeded in retaining legitimacy as the king of France in spite of a rival coronation held for Henry VI on the boy's tenth birthday.

§Papal States

March 3 - Pope Eugene IV succeeds Pope Martin V as the 207th pope


September - Battle of Inverlochy


  • Rodrigo Borgia


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