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1312CE

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§Atlantic Sea

§Canary Islands

Lancelotto Malocello, a Genoese navigator, sails to the island of Lanzarote, one of the Canary Islands, and remains there for almost two decades.

§Europe

§England

Acceding to French pressure, Edward abolished the Templars in both England and Scotland. Any Scottish Templars under arrest were confined to the Cistercian Houses.

When Gaveston returned in 1312, he was faced with hostility. Thomas Plantagenet, 2nd Earl of Lancaster raised an army against Gaveston and the King, and on 4 May attacked Newcastle, where Edward and Gaveston were staying. The pair were forced to flee by ship to Scarborough Castle. They left behind all of their money and soldiers, which were appropriated by Lancaster. Edward then went south to raise an army, leaving Gaveston in Scarborough. Lancaster immediately brought his army up to threaten Gaveston and to cut him off from the King. Fearful for his life, Gaveston was forced to surrender to Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, who swore an oath to surrender his lands and titles to protect Gaveston. However, at or near Deddington Castle in Oxfordshire, Gaveston was captured and taken to Warwick Castle by Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick.

He was held there for nine days before the Earl of Lancaster arrived; Lancaster then judged, "While he lives, there will be no safe place in the realm of England." Accordingly, on 19 June, Gaveston was taken to Blacklow Hill (which belonged to the Earl of Lancaster), and killed by two Welshmen, who ran him through with a sword before beheading him as he lay dying on the grass.

He was survived by his wife and a baby daughter, Joan. The Earl of Pembroke, who had sworn to protect him, was mortified by the death, having attempted to raise an army to free him, and having even appealed to the University of Oxford for aid. (The University, not known for its military strength in any case, had not the slightest interest in assisting either Gaveston or de Valence.)

Edward II, on hearing of the murder, at first reacted with rage; later, this became cold fury, and a desire to destroy those who had destroyed Gaveston. Ten years later, Edward II avenged Gaveston's death when he had the Earl of Lancaster killed.

November 13 - Edward III is born. His mother, Isabella of Spain was only 16 years old. The reign of his father, Edward II, was fraught with military defeat, rebellious barons and corrupt courtiers, but the birth of a male heir in 1312 temporarily strengthened Edward II's position on the throne. To further this end, in what was probably an attempt by his father to shore up royal supremacy after years of discontent, Edward was created Earl of Chester at the age of only twelve days, and less than two months later, his father gave him a full household of servants for his court, so he could live independently as if he were a full adult Nobleman.

§Germany

Siege of Rostock begins

§Greece

Battle near Thebes

§Papal States

The Knights Templars were dissolved and much of their wealth was given to the Hospitallers. The process of persecuting the Templars in France and, more widely, across every territory in which they operated, ran between 1307-1312, at which time the Templars were formally abolished by a papal council known as the Council of Vienne.

§Sources

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