Recent Changes - Search:


<< 13 Kyr | 2 Ma-10000 BCE | 11 Kyr >>

Beginning of the Mesolithic / Holocene. Y-Haplogroup R1a; mt-haplogroups V, T. Evolution of light skin in Europeans (SLC24A5). Homo floresiensis dies out, leaving Homo sapiens as the only living species of the genus Homo.

This was also the end of the last ice age. It was at this time that modern hunter gatherers developed civilization.

Beginning of the Younger Dryas which began 12,900 years ago and moved back into a warm-and-wet climate regime about 11,600 years ago

Einkorn may have been the first domesticated grain.


§South Africa

Peers Cave near Fish Hoek, Cape Town in the Cape Peninsula of modern day South Africa contained an amazing amount of evidence relating to prehistoric human occupation. One of the skulls has been dated to be 12,000 years old.

The excavations show evidence of a beach combing lifestyle which is apparent with many ornaments and jewelry items being constructed from the shells of sea animals. Other artifacts include stone hunting and preparation implements typical to the era, as well as sewing tools.

Further excavation of layers uncovered lithic tools including flakes and cores which date back much further than the skull. The lithic tools have been labeled as Howiesons Poort which is a technology of the area which dates back as far as 70,000 years ago.



People lived year round in the Himalayas as far back as 12,600 years ago.



During the 20th century a rock shelter site called Roc-aux-Sorciers was discovered near the commune Angles-sur-l'Anglin in the Poitou-Charentes region. Evidence of human art was found in the form of blocks which had fallen from the ceiling of the cave which had been carved with shapes of animals and humans. The rocks have been dated to around 12,000BCE and some of the site has been preserved for possible future excavations, which is not uncommon in archaeology.


Analysis of the butchered knee bone from a brown bear, which lay in a cardboard box in the National Museum of Ireland for a century, has indicated that humans lived on the island 12,500 ago, the researchers say. Since the 1970s the Mesolithic site at Mount Sandel in Co Derry, dating back some 10,000 years, has been regarded as the oldest evidence of human occupation in Ireland. This knee bone pushes that date back an additional 2,500 years.

§Mesopotamia (Modern Southern Turkey)

Göbekli Tepe was built about 11,700 years ago. It is the oldest known temple to date. Finding this temple changed the understanding of the chronology of the development of civilization. This massive limestone temple was built without the wheel, without forged metal and without domesticated draft animals.

§Middle East


Wadi Al-Hammeh is an archaeological site in modern day Jordan which is believed to have been occupied around 11,500 years ago.

The significance of this site is that is carried examples of human artistic creation in a typical sense for the era such as rock art, bone ornaments and marine shell beads within and around the human single room dwellings which have been discovered.


Humans settle in Abu Hureyra about this time.

§North America

The first humans of the Colorado River basin were likely Paleo-Indians of the Clovis and Folsom cultures, who first arrived on the Colorado Plateau about 12,000 years ago.


The Nenana valley in Alaska contains an archaeological site dating back as far as 12,000BCE. Although links have been suggested to Clovis culture in the Americas, no Clovis materials have been excavated from the site.

Another location called Broken Mammoth suggests a community existing with the assistance of mammoth hunting. Once again, this site dates up to 12,000BCE.


In 2014, the autosomal DNA of a 12,500+-year-old infant from Montana was sequenced The DNA was taken from a skeleton referred to as Anzick-1. The skeleton was found in close association with several Clovis artifacts. Comparisons showed strong affinities with DNA from Siberian sites, and virtually ruled out any close affinity of Anzick-1 with European sources (the "Solutrean hypothesis"). The DNA of the Anzick-1 sample showed strong affinities with sampled Native American populations, which indicated that the samples derive from an ancient population that lived in or near Siberia, the Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population.


Very much just over the Alaskan border with the Yukon territory of Canada is an archeological site called Bluefish Caves. Evidence of mammoth hunting and indeed of caribou hunting exists at the site which has been dated back as far as 15,000 years ago. Artifacts at the site include microblades which could have been applied in numbers to a caribou antler for example to create a sharp cutting tool.

However, there is an opinion of human occupation here that dates back even further, to around 25,000 years ago. However this theory would insist upon their being a human migration from Asia across the Bering land bridge to Alaska earlier than the popular estimate of around 15,000 years ago. This earlier migration is yet to be conclusively disproved.


Towards the end of the last glacial period, 12,000 to 15,000 years ago, glaciers descending from the Altai mountains dammed the Chuya River, a large tributary of the Katun River, creating a large glacial lake including the Chuya and the Kurai basins. As the lake grew larger and deeper, the ice dam eventually failed, causing a catastrophic flood that spilled along the Katun River. This flood may have been the greatest discharge of freshwater on Earth, since its magnitude has been estimated similar to that of the Missoula flood in North America around 15Kyr.

§South America


Fells Cave is an archaeological site in the very south of Patagonia inside the Chilean border with Argentina. There have been many artefacts recovered from this cave with suggest human occupation dating to 11,000 years ago.

An iron-oxide mine along northern Chile’s Pacific coast appears to have been active some 12,000 years ago, according to carbon-dating of charcoal and other artifacts at the site.

The earliest miners were likely the Huentelauquen people, who may have used pigments rendered from the iron oxide to decorate their bodies, clothes, and tools. Salazar’s team discovered better than 500 hammerstones at the San Ramon 15 mine.

§South Pacific


Homo floresiensis ("Flores Man", nicknamed "hobbit") was apparently the last of our ancestors to go extinct on the small Indonesian island of Flores.


<< 13 Kyr | 2 Ma-10000 BCE | 11 Kyr >>

Edit - History - Print - Recent Changes - Search
Page last modified on January 05, 2017, at 11:30 PM