Recent Changes - Search:


<< | 1291-1300 CE | 1292 CE >>

§Eastern Asia


The artificial Kunming Lake is constructed as a reservoir for Beijing in Yuan Dynasty China by famous engineer and astronomer Guo Shoujing.


Emperor Kameyama, emperor of Japan, establishes the Zen Buddhist temple of Nanzenji in Kyoto.


§Bohemia - Poland

Klenová castle is constructed in southern Bohemia as part of a frontier defense system.

Przemysł II, High Duke of Poland, ceded the sovereign duchy of Krakow to Wenceslaus. Kraków was associated with the overlordship of Poland


Albert I got involved in a power struggle with Adolf of Nassau for the German throne, and the Habsburg rule over the alpine territories weakened temporarily. Anti-Habsburg insurgences sprung up in Swabia and Austria.


In the spring of this year, Vandino and Ugolino Vivaldi set sail from Genoa with the goal of reaching India; they never return.

All glassmakers in Venice are forced to moved to the island of Murano in order to contain the risk of fire, thus establishing the glass industry there.

§Papal States

Pope Nicholas IV confirms the independence of San Marino via papal bull.

Gaudemus in Domino "Rejoice in the Lord" issued by Pope Nicholas IV, a letter sent to Arghun's third wife, Uruk Khatun, the mother of Nicholas (Oljeitu), Arghun's successor.


May 10 - Scottish nobles recognize the authority of King Edward I of England in mediating resolution of the succession crisis created by the death of King Alexander III of Scotland five years prior.


Sancho IV of Castile captures Tarifa from the Moors.


The Habsburgs acquire the Swiss city of Lucerne.

When Rudolph died on July 15, the Communities prepared to defend themselves. On August 1, an Everlasting League was made between the Forest Communities for mutual defense against a common enemy. According to tradition, the Swiss Confederation is formed by Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden, the "three forest cantons". A purported enacting document, the Federal Charter of 1291, is now widely believed to be a forgery.

The Federal Charter or Letter of Alliance (German: Bundesbrief) documents the Eternal Alliance or League Of The Three Forest Cantons (German: Ewiger Bund der Drei Waldstätten), the union of three cantons in what is now central Switzerland, traditionally dated in early August, 1291 and associated with the current August 1 national holiday. This agreement cites a previous (lost) similar pact.

This inaugural confederation grew through a long series of accessions to modern Switzerland. The Alliance was concluded between the people of the alpine areas of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden (homines vallis Uranie universitasque vallis de Switz ac communitas hominum Intramontanorum Vallis Inferioris). The participants are referred to as conspirati and (synonymously) coniurati, traditionally translated in German as "Eidgenossen".

The league was set up as a league for defense purposes against any attacker, probably prompted by the death of Rudolf I of Habsburg on 15 July 1291. Before his death, Habsburg attempted to reinforce his claim over Schwyz and Unterwalden which meant a succession of military interventions.

The authenticity of the letter is disputed. Most historians agree that it is almost certainly a product of the 14th century. In 1991, the parchment was radiocarbon dated to between 1252 and 1312 (with a certainty of 85%). The document is thus certainly unrelated to the emergence of the modern federal state in 1848, as had sometimes been suggested before the carbon dating. It should rather be seen in the context of chapter 15 of the Golden Bull of 1356, where Charles IV outlawed any conjurationes, confederationes, and conspirationes, meaning in particular the city alliances (Städtebünde), but also other communal leagues that had sprung up through the communal movement in medieval Europe.

§Middle East


May 25 - Templar commander Theobald Gaudin fled the Acre fortress in a boat laden with treasure. The Templars were kicked out of the Holy Land and had to retreat to Cyprus.

June 17 - Mamluk Sultan of Egypt Khalil captures Acre, thus exterminating the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem — the final Christian landholding remaining from the Crusades — and ending the Ninth Crusade and effectively all Crusades by eliminating the possibility of further attacks on the Holy Land.


Collapse of Anasazi civilization in North America due to widespread famine which lasted until 1299.


<< | 1291-1300 CE | 1292 CE >>

Edit - History - Print - Recent Changes - Search
Page last modified on September 24, 2017, at 12:10 AM