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1275CE

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§Of World Interest

May 25 - Transit of Venus

§Asia

§China

Invading Mongol forces capture the Chinese city of Suzhou.

Marco Polo purportedly visits Xanadu, Kublai Khan's summer capital of the Mongol Empire.

The city of Kunming is made capital of the Yunnan province of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty.

Nestorian monk Rabban Bar Sauma begin his pilgrimage from China towards Jerusalem

Astronomy

Chinese astronomers observe a total eclipse of the Sun in China on March 4.

§Eras and population estimates

The era of the tosafot, Medieval commentators on the Talmud, ends (began 1100).

The population of Bushmen in Basutoland (modern-day Lesotho) is estimated at 125,000.

§Japan

The Japanese era Bun'ei ends, and the Kenji era begins.

Musō Kokushi is born to a father from a Genji family and a mother from a Heike family.

May: Khubilai Khan sends further envoys to Japan to demand its submission. The envoys are executed in October and defense preparations in Kyūshū continue for an expected second invasion.

§Europe

War and politics

§England

April 22 - The first of the Statutes of Westminster are passed by the English parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses.

The first main survey of the Hundred Rolls, an English census seen as a follow up to the Domesday Book completed in 1086, is finished; it began in 1274.

§English Law

As part of the rape law, a statute, Westminster 1, made it a misdemeanor to "ravish" a "maiden within age," whether with or without her consent. The phrase "within age" was interpreted by jurist Sir Edward Coke as meaning the age of marriage, which at the time was 12 years of age.

The age of consent in England was set at 12 (Westminster 1 statute), the first time an age of consent had been set in England

§France

Jean de Meun completes the French allegorical work of fiction, Roman de la Rose, with a second section; the first section was written by Guillaume de Lorris in 1230.

Alfonso X of Castile tried to meet with his nominal imperial vicar in Italy, William VII of Montferrat (who had succeeded Ezzelino) and his Ghibelline allies in Piedmont and Lombardy to fight against the Guelph Charles I of Anjou; he was however stopped in Provence by the Pope who, after a long negotiation, obtained Alfonso's renunciation of the title of King of the Romans.

§Lithuania

Third mongol Golden Horde raid against Lithuania.

Culture, religion, and science

The verge escapement, a simple type of escapement used in clocks, is invented (exact year unknown)

§Netherlands

The earliest recorded use of the name "Amsterdam" is from a certificate dated 27 October 1275, when the inhabitants, who had built a bridge with a dam across the Amstel, were exempted from paying a bridge toll by Count Floris V. The certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme (people living near Amestelledamme).

§Spain

Ramon Llull establishes a school in Majorca to teach Arabic to preachers in an attempt to aid proselytizing to Moors. He also discovers diethyl ether.

Alfonso's eldest son, Ferdinand, died in 1275 at the battle of Écija against the Moroccan and Granadan invasion armies, leaving two infant sons. Alfonso's second son, Sancho, claimed to be the new heir, in preference to the children of Ferdinand de la Cerda, basing his claim on an old Castilian custom, that of proximity of blood and agnatic seniority. Alfonso preferred to leave the throne to his grandsons, but Sancho had the support of the nobility. A bitter civil war broke out.

§North America

Collapse of Anasazi civilization, widespread famine occurred which lasted until 1299.

§Sources

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