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§Eastern Asia


By using data from tree rings of Siberian pines, researchers found an unusually warm and wet period between 1211 CE and 1225 CE, corresponding with Genghis Khan's horse-driven invasion. The Mongol Empire eventually spanned from what is today Korea to eastern Europe and the Middle East.

Beijing captured and staked by Mongols, initiating the Yuan Dynasty in China.

Mongol army led by Gengis Khan conquers Beijing.



In January 1215 William Marshall served as a negotiator during a meeting in the Temple Church between King John and the barons, who demanded that John uphold the rights enshrined the Coronation Charter of his predecessor Richard I. William swore on behalf of the king that the grievances of the barons would be addressed in the summer, leading to John's signing (sealing) of Magna Carta in June.

March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III.

June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricting the king's power. Magna Carta was first drawn up in 1215, granted by King John at Runnymede near the River Thames in Surrey. It was originally meant as a peace treaty between King John (of Robin Hood fame) and his barons, with whom he was at war. The barons had captured London and John found himself in a political mess – he needed a quick get-out solution.

August - King John rejects the Magna Carta, leading to an English civil war (the First Barons' War). John agreed to Magna Carta at first, he quickly became bitter when its terms were forced upon him. He wrote to the Pope to get it annulled. The Pope actually happened to agree with John (for once), saying Magna Carta was “illegal, unjust, harmful to royal rights and shameful to the English people”. He then declared the charter “null and void of all validity for ever”.


Otto IV deposed as King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor, replaced by Frederick II (King 1212-1250).

§Papal States

August 24 - Pope Innocent III declares the Magna Carta invalid.

The bull, Ad Abolendum was incorporated as Canon 3 of the Fourth Council of the Lateran of 1215 under Pope Innocent III. Contrary to what is often said, Lucius did not institute the Inquisition, which was not created until the reign of Pope Gregory IX in 1234 CE.

The Fourth Lateran Council accepted the doctrine that the wafer used at the Mass was miraculously transformed into the body of Jesus. Christian’s belief in this doctrine led to the torture and murder of thousands of Jews. The reasoning was: since Jesus was brought to life through the wafer, would not the Jews who had once crucified him wish to torture and kill him again?

§Southeast Asia

§Khmer (modern Cambodia)

Indravarman II became king of Angkor from a time ranging from this year until 1220 CE and ruled until 1243 CE. Source differ as to whether he was the II or the III.

§South Pacific


Kanipahu became the Alii Aimoku of the Island of Hawaii until 1245.


5th Crusade in the Holy Land


  • Eisai of Japan


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Page last modified on September 24, 2017, at 12:07 AM