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Abd al-Mumin destroys the Almoravid Empire.

§Middle East

The Knights Templar began wearing the familiar red cross on a white background. By this time they were one of the most powerful forces in Christendom.


Wendish Crusade.

Knights Templar began wearing the symbol of the red cross with its splayed ends on a field of white.


Dore Abbey founded.


Pope Eugene III sent a legate to the Cathar district (Southern France) in order to arrest the progress of the Cathars. The few isolated successes of Bernard of Clairvaux could not obscure the poor results of this mission, which clearly showed the power of the sect in the Languedoc at that period.

Pope Eugenius III. came to Paris and being informed of irregular conduct in one of the monastaries, he commissioned the celebrated Suger, abbot of St. Denys, and prime minister to King Louis the Young, to expel them, and introduce in their room regular canons from the abbey of St. Victor

Jews in Carenton, Ramenu & Sully are massacred.


Jews of Cologne massacred


October 21 - Siege of Lisbon: King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from the Moors.

Alfonso Henriques breaks from Leon and Castile, proclaims the establishment of an independent Portugal with himself as King, and sweeps south capturing Santarem and then laying siege to and capturing Lisbon with the help of a crusader fleet. As a token of thanks for the victory at Santarem, the new King gives a large amount of land and money for the establishment of a daughter house of Saint Bernard's Cistercian Abbey of Clairvaux - to become the magnificent Cistercian Abbey of Santa Maria de Alcobaça.


Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, helped Castile conquer Almería, located in southeastern Spain on the Mediterranean Sea. Almería suffered many sieges, and one especially fierce when Christians, called to the Second Crusade by Pope Eugene III, were also encouraged to fall upon the Muslim infidel on a more familiar coast. On that occasion Alfonso VII, at the head of mixed forces of Catalans, Genoese, Pisans and Franks led a crusade against the rich city, and Almería was occupied in October 1147.


First written mention of Moscow.


  • October 31 - Robert of Gloucester


Civil war in England and Normandy between 1135 and 1153, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order known as the Anarchy.


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