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§Of World Interest

Halley's comet reached its perihelion on April 18th. It was mentioned in English Medieval Manuscripts.

§Central Asia


Estimation: Merv in the Seljuk Empire becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.[1]

§Eastern Asia


Kim Pusik and his team of historians finishes compilation of the Korean historical text Samguk Sagi.


The news of the fall of Edessa, of the three Crusader states established after the first Crusade, (modern Syria) was brought back to Europe first by pilgrims early in 1145, and then by embassies from Antioch, Jerusalem, and Armenia. Bishop Hugh of Jabala reported the news to Pope Eugene III, who issued the bull Quantum praedecessores on December 1 of that year, calling for a second crusade. Hugh also told the Pope of an eastern Christian king, who, it was hoped, would bring relief to the crusader states: this is the first documented mention of Prester John.

The legends of Prester John, popular in Europe from the 12th through the 17th centuries, told of a Christian patriarch and king said to rule over a Christian nation lost amidst the Muslims and pagans in the Orient. Written accounts of this kingdom are variegated collections of medieval popular fantasy. Reportedly a descendant of one of the Three Magi, Prester John was said to be a generous ruler and a virtuous man, presiding over a realm full of riches and strange creatures, in which the Patriarch of Saint Thomas resided. His kingdom contained such marvels as the Gates of Alexander and the Fountain of Youth, and it even bordered the Earthly Paradise. Among his treasures was a mirror through which every province could be seen, the fabled original from which derived the "mirror literature" of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance, in which the prince's realms were surveyed and his duties laid out.

Pope Eugene did not control Rome and lived instead at Viterbo, but nevertheless the crusade was meant to be more organized and centrally controlled than the First Crusade: certain preachers would be approved by the pope, the armies would be led by the strongest kings of Europe, and a route would be planned beforehand. The initial response to the new crusade bull was poor, and it in fact had to be reissued when it was clear that Louis VII would be taking part in the expedition. Louis VII of France had also been considering a new expedition independently of the Pope, which he announced to his Christmas court at Bourges in 1145.


Woburn Abbey founded


Construction begins on Notre-Dame d'Chartres in Chartres, France


Arnold of Brescia joins the revolutionary Commune of Rome, where he becomes its intellectual leader for the next decade


Eugene III's papal bull, Militia Dei ("Soldiers of God") allows the Knights Templar to take tithes and burial fees and to bury their dead in their own cemeteries.

December 1 - Papal Bull, Quantum praedecessores ("How much did our predecessors") calls for the Second Crusade.

§Southeast Asia

§Khmer (modern Cambodia)

Suryavarman II turned on his ally, the Kingdom of Champa, and briefly conquered it.


Civil war in England and Normandy between 1135 and 1153, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order known as the Anarchy.


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