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First recorded example of an anti-Semitic blood libel in England


Montauban, France, is founded

Normandy comes under Angevin control under Geoffrey of Anjou


Giordano Pierleoni founds the revolutionary Commune of Rome

§Papal States

Louis VII capitulates to Pope Celestine II and so earns the pope's absolution

Celestine II's Papal Bull Milites Templi ("Soldiers of the Temple") provides clergy protection to the Knights Templar and encourages contributions to their cause.

March 12 - Pope Lucius II succeeds Pope Celestine II as the 166th pope.


The Priory in Lesmahagow is founded by Benedictine monks


First recorded mention of Ljubljana, Slovenia

§Middle East

County of Edessa

The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). The County of Edessa was different from the other Crusader states in that it was landlocked; it was remote from the other states and was not on particularly good terms with its closest neighbor, the Principality of Antioch; and half of the county, including its capital, was located to the east of the Euphrates and hence far to the east of the others. The part west of the Euphrates was controlled from the stronghold of Turbessel.

December 24 - County of Edessa falls to Zengi (see Siege of Edessa)


Civil war in England and Normandy between 1135 and 1153, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order known as the Anarchy.


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