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1138CE

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§Europe

§England

Robert Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. He was nominated on 10 April 1138 at a royal council held at Northampton. Probably, he was elected by the cathedral chapter and his election was formally accepted by King Stephen of England at Northampton. He was consecrated on 18 December 1138 by the papal legate Alberic, because the archbishopric of Canterbury was vacant.

August 22 - Battle of the Standard between David I of Scotland and the English. The Scots were defeated.

Robert of Gloucester rebelled against the king, starting the descent into civil war in England.[65] An illegitimate son of Henry I and the half-brother of the Empress Matilda, Robert was one of the most powerful Anglo-Norman barons, controlling estates in Normandy as well as the Earldom of Gloucester. Robert renounced his fealty to Stephen and declared his support for Matilda, triggering a major regional rebellion in Kent and across the south-west of England, although Robert himself remained in Normandy.[67] Matilda had not been particularly active in asserting her claims to throne since 1135 and in many ways it was Robert that took the initiative in declaring war. In France, Geoffrey took advantage of the situation by re-invading Normandy. David of Scotland also invaded the north of England once again, announcing that he was supporting the claim of his niece the Empress Matilda to the throne, pushing south into Yorkshire.

§Germany

Conrad III, the Hohenstaufen Duke Conrad of Swabia, was chosen as the new king to succeed Lothair.

After Lothair's death (December 1137), Conrad was elected King of the Germans and King of the Romans (the title customarily accorded preparatory to accession as emperor) at Coblenz, on March 7, 1138, in the presence of the papal legate. Conrad was crowned at Aachen six days later and was acknowledged in Bamberg by several princes of southern Germany. As Henry the Proud, son-in-law and heir of Lothair and the most powerful prince in Germany, who had been passed over in the election, refused to do the same, Conrad deprived him of all his territories, giving Saxony to Albert the Bear and Bavaria to Leopold of Austria. Henry, however, retained the loyalty of his subjects. The civil war that broke out is considered the first act of the struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines, which later extended southwards to Italy.

Bavaria was taken away from the Welfen Duke Henry the Proud and given to the Austrian Margrave Leopold IV.

§Papal States

March 13 - Cardinal Gregory is elected anti-pope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II.

§Poland

Boleslaw III died and was succeeded by his 13 year old son, Boleslaw IV as High Duke of Poland.

The capital is moved from PÅ‚ock.

§Middle East

§Syria

October 11 - (August 9 alternate date} - Deadly earthquake in Aleppo, Syria killing about 230,000 people. The 1138 Aleppo earthquake was among the deadliest earthquakes history. Its name was taken from the city of Aleppo, in northern Syria, where the most casualties were sustained. The quake occurred on 11 October 1138 and was preceded by a smaller quake on the 10th. It is frequently listed as the third deadliest earthquake in history., following on from the Shensi and Tangshan earthquakes in China. However, the figure of 230,000 dead is based on a historical conflation of this earthquake with earthquakes in November 1137 CE on the Jazira plain and the large seismic event of 30 September 1139 in the Azerbaijani city of Ganja. The first mention of a 230,000 death toll was by Ibn Taghribirdi in the fifteenth century

§Births

Saladin, ruler of Egypt and Syria (died 1193)

§Ongoing

Civil war in England and Normandy between 1135 and 1153, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order known as the Anarchy.

§Sources

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