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1137CE

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§Central Asia

The Khitans defeated the Western Kara-Khanid Khanate at Khujand in 1137, eventually leading to their control over the Fergana Valley.

§Europe

§England

Rochester Cathedral is severely damaged by a fire, but is soon rebuilt.

§France

Louis VI "The Fat" died.

Louis VII is crowned King of France. He subsequently marries Eleanor of Aquitaine, daughter of William X.

§Italy

Bernard of Clairvaux was again forced to leave his solitude in France by order of the Pope to put an end to the quarrel between Lothair and Roger of Sicily. At the conference held at Palermo, Bernard succeeded in convincing Roger of the rights of Innocent II. He also silenced the final supporters who sustained the schism.

§Spain

On August 11, Ramon Berenguer IV was betrothed in Huesca to the infant Petronila of Aragon, aged 3 at the time. Her father, Ramiro II of Aragon the Monk, who sought Barcelona's aid against Alfonso VII of Castile, abdicated on November 13 that same year, leaving his kingdom to Petronila and her husband. The latter essentially became ruler of Aragon, although he was never king himself, but instead Count of Barcelona, Prince of the Kingdom of Aragon. He was the last Catalan monarch to use the title of Count as his first; starting with his son Alfonso II of Aragon the counts of Barcelona styled themselves, in the first place, as kings of Aragon.

The treaty between Ramon Berenguer and his father-in-law stipulated that their descendants would rule jointly over both realms. Even should Petronila die before the marriage could be consummated, Berenguer would still inherit the title of King of Aragon. Both realms would preserve their laws, institutions and autonomy, remaining legally distinct but federated in a dynastic union under one ruling House.

Historians consider this arrangement the political masterstroke of the Hispanic Middle Ages. Both realms gained greater strength and security and Aragon got its much needed outlet to the sea. On the other hand, formation of a new political entity in the southeast at a time when Portugal seceded from Castile in the west gave more balance to the Christian kingdoms of the peninsula.

§Vatican States

This is the year priests of the Roman Catholic Church were ordered to become celibate. In an attempt to safeguard Church property and maintain control of career clergymen, the Church mandated celibacy. It was invented as a way of portioning Church wealth between lay people and priests during a time of Church upheaval. The Church did not want its wealth being given to wives and children.

§Mesopotamia

There was an earthquake on the Al-Jazira plain.

§Births

Amalric I of Jerusalem

§Deaths

August 1 - King Louis VI of France (born 1081)

§Ongoing

Civil war in England and Normandy between 1135 and 1153, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order known as the Anarchy.

§Sources

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