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1128CE

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§Europe

§Belgium

June 21 Battle of Akspoele: earl Willem of Normandy beats Diederik (obscure Internet reference, can not find any supporting detail)

Bruges got its city charter on July 27, 1128 and built itself new walls and canals. Since about 1050 CE, gradual silting had caused the city to lose its direct access to the sea.

§Bulgaria

Sredets (Sofia) suffered a Magyar raid as part of the Byzantine Empire.

§England

Henry attempted to build up a base of political support for Matilda in both England and Normandy, demanding that his court take oaths to recognise Matilda as his immediate successor and recognise her descendants as the rightful ruler after her.

§France

Bernard of Clairvaux participated in the Council of Troyes, which had been convoked by Pope Honorius II, and was presided over by Cardinal Matthew, Bishop of Albano. The purpose of this council was to settle certain disputes of the bishops of Paris, and regulate other matters of the Church of France. The bishops made Bernard secretary of the council, and charged him with drawing up the synodal statutes. After the council, the bishop of Verdun was deposed. It was at this council that Bernard traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar who soon became the ideal of Christian nobility. He later praised them in his De Laude Novae Militiae.

Again reproaches arose against Bernard and he was denounced, even in Rome. He was accused of being a monk who meddled with matters that did not concern him. Cardinal Harmeric, on behalf of the pope, wrote Bernard a sharp letter of remonstrance stating, "It is not fitting that noisy and troublesome frogs should come out of their marshes to trouble the Holy See and the cardinals."

Bernard answered the letter by saying that, if he had assisted at the council, it was because he had been dragged to it by force. In his response Bernard wrote,

Now illustrious Harmeric if you so wished, who would have been more capable of freeing me from the necessity of assisting at the council than yourself? Forbid those noisy troublesome frogs to come out of their holes, to leave their marshes . . . Then your friend will no longer be exposed to the accusations of pride and presumption.

This letter made a positive impression on Harmeric, and in the Vatican.

§Italy

Conrad Hohenstaufen Holy Roman anti-king, descended into Italy and was crowned as King of Italy at Monza on 29 July 1128. The German bishops, again led by Adalbert of Mainz, excommunicated Conrad, an act that was confirmed by Honorius in a synod held in Rome at Easter (April 22, 1128). Honorius also sent Cardinal John of Crema to Pisa to hold another synod that excommunicated Archbishop Anselm of Milan who had crowned Conrad king. Conrad found little help in Italy and with Honorius’s support, Lothair was able to keep his throne.

§Papal States

Pope Honorius II recognizes and confirms the Order of the Knights Templar at the Council of Troyes. He gave the order his blessing and codified its 73 rules in the Latin Rule. The order was directed by a Grand Master of which the first was Hugh of Payes. He was the first of 23 men to hold the position.

§Portugal

June 24 King Afonso I of Portugal, then Count of Portugal defeats his mother, Teresa of León, in the Battle of São Mamede and gains control of the county.

§Scotland

Holyrood Abbey founded in Edinburgh by David I, King of Scotland.

The Knights Templar first came to Scotland during the reign of King David I, whom Hugues de Payens visited as part of his international recruitment drive. De Payens made a very favorable impression on King David, to the extent that he later surrounded himself by Templars and appointed them as “the Guardians of his morals by day and night”. As a result of this Royal favor, through gifts from both the King and his Court, the Templars acquired a substantial property holding in Scotland. There were two major Preceptories at the time: in Midlothian, there was Ballantradoch, also known as Balintradoch or a number of other spellings, but now renamed Temple, which was regarded as the main Preceptory and the administrative headquarters of the Order in Scotland; the other was at Maryculter in Aberdeenshire, on the southern bank of the River Dee.

§Sources

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