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<< 11 Kyr | 2 Ma-10000 BCE | >>



Due to sea levels rising, Taiwan was cut off from the mainland when the Taiwan Straight was created.


Between 10,000 and 8000 BCE, northeast Africa was cultivating wheat and barley and raising sheep and cattle from southwest Asia. A wet climatic phase in Africa turned the Ethiopian Highlands into a mountain forest.


The stone age in India from approximately 70,000 BCE to 7000 BCE.

§Near East

All cattle are descended from as few as 80 animals that were domesticated from wild ox in the Near East some 10,500 years ago, according to a genetic study.


At the close of the glacial period, in North and West Europe there was a tiny and migratory population of humans that subsisted largely be hunting reindeer. It is believed that they were in Ireland at least by 12Kyr because of a butchered bear knee bone.

Before the end of the Devensian glaciation (the most recent ice age) around 10,000 years ago, the British Isles were part of continental Europe. During this period the North Sea and almost all of the British Isles were covered with ice. The sea level was about 120 m lower than it is today, and the channel was an expanse of low-lying tundra, through which passed a river which drained the Rhine and Thames towards the Atlantic to the west. As the ice sheet melted, a large freshwater lake formed in the southern part of what is now the North Sea. As the meltwater could still not escape to the north (as the northern North Sea was still frozen) the outflow channel from the lake entered the Atlantic Ocean in the region of Dover and Calais.

§Middle East

§Fertile Crescent

The Neolithic or Agricultural Revolution (see 10000BCE) was essentially the detail of human transition from hunter/gatherer lifestyles to one that incorporated agriculture. Agriculture is the deliberate farming of life (plants and animals). Previous to this, humans exploited wild varieties of life for food and resource. Much evidence of early agriculture comes from an area of the Middle East called the Fertile Crescent. The Fertile Crescent in the literal sense of a crescent shaped area of fertile advantage for agriculture at its eastern point starts at the Persian Gulf and follows a path northwest centring on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in lands encompassed by the Zagros Mountains in Iran to the east and the Arabian and Syrian Deserts to the south. Passing right the way through modern day Iraq to the modern Turkish border, the Fertile Crescent then turns southwards to include the lands of modern day Syria, hugging the Levant’s Mediterranean coastline as far as the Sinai Peninsula. An extension of the Fertile Crescent where the traits of the Agricultural Revolution can also be applied to would include a corridor of land from the modern day Iraq/Turkey border, right the way through Asia Minor to the Sea of Marmara and the flood susceptible banks of the River Nile in modern day Egypt.

Domestication of sheep

The sheep is believed to be one of the first animals to be subject to pastoralism at the start of the Agricultural Revolution. Pastoralism is farming livestock, which involves the full process of captivating (in an archaic sense), transporting, caring for and breeding animals for an ultimate purpose or purposes. As wild sheep are especially docile, particularly when young, this would have undoubtedly been a relatively easy pastoralization. The domestic sheep's (Ovis aries) chief products would have been meat, milk, hide and wool. This is believed to have happened perhaps independently in areas of the Fertile Crescent possibly from around 10,500 years ago. Due to selective breeding, the domestic sheep exists in the world today in over 200 different breeds.


The earliest evidence of agriculture was found for the period around 9000 BCE.


Domestication of wheat – Wheat is believed to be one of the first cereals to be domesticated for consumption by humans with its origins perhaps being in what is today southern Turkey. Although a suspected date of around 10,000BCE has been applied to this domestication, the cereal would have surely been exploited in some way by humans for many thousands of years before. It should be fair to assume that any domestication of animals or plants would have been a gradual process, and therefore any dates applied would really just be an estimate as to when it became a mainstream process within a community. Einkorn wheat in its domesticated form (Triticum monococcum) is a grass crop which is mostly only cultivated for animal feed in the modern day, but is believed to have been domesticated as long ago as 9000BCE in southern Turkey and the Fertile Crescent. Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) is believed to be another wheat crop which grew in the same regions as einkorn wheat and could have been domesticated as long ago as 10,000BCE. It doesn’t have much use in the modern crop culture other than in niche productions such as beer.

§North America


Ancient Beringian populations were living in the Tanana Valley based on the DNA results of the skeletal remains of two female children.

§Future United States of America

In the south of the state of Arizona exists an archaeological site called Murray Springs. Murray Springs shows significant relationships with the American Clovis culture, which is thought of as a manufacturing revolution of the first humans ever to set foot in North America. Murray Springs itself is geographically very close to the city of Clovis in New Mexico.

There is a lot of evidence that points to human slaughter of mammalian life that dates back to possibly 11,000 years ago.


<< 11 Kyr | 2 Ma-10000 BCE | >>

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Page last modified on January 06, 2018, at 11:30 AM