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<< 150 Kyr | 2 Ma-10000 BCE | 90 Kyr >>


Upper Paleolithic Neanderthals (approximately 130,000 to 45,000) - Upper Paleolithic Neanderthals sites include: Krapina, Saccopastore, Malarnaud, Altamura, Gánovce, Denisova, Okladnikov, Pech de l'Azé, Tabun, Kebara, Régourdou, Mt. Circeo, La Ferrassie, Combe Grenal, La Chapelle, Amud, Shanidar, Teshik-Tash, and Feldhofer.


Modern Homo sapiens ("Cro-magnon") originally inhabited the region now known as Israel from about 100,000 BCE

It's believed that the Cro-magnon were taller and more slender than the Neanderthals.


DNA studies of a molar in Denisova, Siberia, have shown that this individual lived 60,000 years before others found in the same cave, which lived 60,000 years ago. That would put this individual in time to about 100-120,000 years ago. It was known that Denisovans mated with Neandertal and Homo Sapiens, mixing their DNA.



Cave paintings at Tsodilo date back 100,000 years. There are over 4,500 images of tribal life.

§Eastern Africa

Eastern Africa experienced a series of severe droughts between 135,000 and 90,000 years ago. Djibouti and Eritrea borders the Arabian peninsula on the Bab el Mandel Strait. It's believed that lower sea levels made it possible for early humans to migrate across the Bab el-Mandeb strait between the horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula from 100,000 to 120,000 years ago.


Anthropologists have found 100,000-year-old skeletons for our species in the Israeli caves of Skhul and Qafzeh.


On the Mediterranean coast of Libya there is an amazing looking cave called Haua Fteah. Speculation is that there was human occupation of the cave for as long as 100,000 years. This is based on the discovery of human remains at the site. The geological analysis of the cave shows layers of rock which provide evidence of occupation through the end of the Middle Paleolithic and throughout the Upper Paleolithic periods.


Evidence suggests that it was around 100,000 years ago that homo sapiens emigrated from Sub-Saharan Africa, that being the African continent south of the Sahara desert.

A further theory exists stating that some homo sapiens negotiated the Sahara region around 125,000 years ago, but due to a global freeze-up, the area of Sahara and the Levant was turned into extreme desert isolating and killing off the migrated individuals.

Further to this, a second suggestion of a movement out of Africa around 90,000 years ago would attribute the mouth of the Red Sea as its route to the Arabian peninsula and beyond.


Around 98000 BCE in the area of present-day France and Belgium, Neanderthals begin defleshing their dead, possibly after a period of excarnation prior to burial


The early inhabitants of Crete settled as early as 128,000 BCE, during the Middle Paleolithic age.

§North America

A Mastadon from this period was discovered in San Diego, California. Of particular importance was the discovery of human tools and evidence that the mastadon bones had been harvested of marrow when they were still fresh. This puts mankind in North America 100,000 years before previously thought if these tools are truly from the same time period as the mastadon.

§South Pacific


Scientists believe that from the period around 400,000 BCE giant marsupials, kangaroos and wombats, roamed the outback. They went extinct around 50,000 BCE coincident with the arrival of humans on the continent.


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